Sensors are essential components of mechanical beings, especially Transformers, serving a wide variety of functions and feeding a mechanoid information about the environment around it. Most Transformers are built with a set of standard senses - optic, audio, olfactory, tactile, short-range radio-wave transmission, electrical sensitivity and magnetic sensitivity are common in some universes  - but many have specialized sensor packages that are unique or rare, giving them special abilities that make them stand out.
Audio Sensors are a component of Transformer anatomy that allows them to hear sounds in their environment (especially since certain Transformers don't even have ears). Some are more acute than others, allowing recording of normally inaudible frequencies.
As part of a demonstration of the Dinobots, Blaster transformed into his alternate form allowing Grimlock to practice his fine tuned laser breath to start up Blaster's music. Ironhide told Blaster to stop the music as it was so loud that it was fusing his audio sensors. Later, Blaster sent the Autobots the music from the rock concert that he, Spike Witwicky, and Carly were attending. Jazz was the only one who seemed to enjoy it, whereas Optimus and the others were nearly overcome in pain.
Equilibrium sensors help a Transformer keep their sense of balance. Isaac Sumdac used this weakness to damage Megatron, calling it his Achilles Heel. Megatron responded by trying to crush Sumdac under his heel.
Olfactory sensors (or noses, which not all Transformers have) are a sensor unit used to detect the scents of others. It is very common in animal based Transformers. Ravage possessed one of the most powerful olfactory sensors. The Dinobot leader Grimlock possessed olfactory sensors which were powerful enough to smell Dinosaur transform static.
After the Great Upgrade from Autobot to Maximal, olfactory sensors were included among sensor units. Silverbolt had impressive olfactory sensors. When Ravage entered the Axalon, he was able to smell Ravage, but was unable to pinpoint exactly where he was.
Tarantulas had a distinctive odor about him. Dinobot said that it smelled like "vile corruption, a whiff of festering putrefication". Interestingly, it smelled just like the limburger sandwich that Rattrap had just eaten.
Some Cybertronians from the 2007 film continuity appear to have olfactory sensors. Ratchet's were powerful enough to detect variation in the pheromone levels of some. Megatron also noted that he could smell the same fleshling. Whether it was the pheromone levels or something else that Megs detected is currently unknown. It could also be noted that in the NEST team encounter with Sideways and Demolishor in Shanghai, Ironhide "inhaled" at the mention a Decepticon, saying he could "smell him".
Speedblast160 12:17, March 14, 2010 (UTC)
The optics on a Transformer mostly seem to perform in an identical way to human eyes, including all the flaws, such as the ability to be dazzled by bright light sources pointed directly at them. Atmospheres with a high particle content may require windshield wipers to keep optic sensors clear.
While all Transformers can usually be assumed to see in the same visual spectrum of colours than humans see in, there are obviously exceptions who are completely colour-blind, and some Transformers demonstrate different perceptions (usually wherever the plot calls for it). Wreck-Gar, for instance, has 'magnetic vision,' probably quite useful given the uniform reddish hue of his home planet of Junkion!
Some Transformers have been known to make use of optic weaponry.
Targeting sensors are sensors which help a Transformer locate and identify a hostile entity. While hunting Autobots through a haze of dirt underwater, Lugnut's targeting sensors managed to locate a body within the haze. Pleased his sensors had succeeded, he threw a punch with full force...hitting Blitzwing. Apparently, his targeting sensors had failed him.
Many Transformers possess sensor packages that allow them to record surveillance data for later review. Laserbeak in particular often serves in this function for the Decepticons.
Also of note are the surveillance sensors contained within the arm assembly of the Autobot Scrounge. He has boasted on numerous occasions that they are unique.
Elita One later displayed a similar device. Sorry, Scrounge.